Pipes without a heel or spur were produced for the export trade from the mid-seventeenth century onwards but only came into general use in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Burnishing was used for better qualities of pipes and almost without exception pipes had bottered rims i.
Regional variations are particularly strong during this period and some areas switched preference between dating english and spur pipes or vice versa during this period. Regional variation becomes less marked and similar forms were used for long-stemmed pipes across the country.
These long pipes continued in use right through into the twentieth century, but in decreasing numbers as a plethora of new shapes and styles clayed pipes into fashion from around The new decorative styles of short-stemmed pipe are hard to categorise into meaningful typologies but should be easily distinguishable from the earlier forms e.
It is important to print these out at life size check the bar scale when printed before comparing pipes with them, since size can be crucial, especially for seventeenth century forms. The general and regional typologies produced by Oswald suffer from the poor quality of the form drawings, although the underlying dating is still sound.
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The earliest clay pipes known in England and Europe are generally thought to date A group of typical English clay pipes dating from the early Victorian period. Evolution of English Clay Tobacco Pipes, Clay Tobacco Pipe, Clay Pipes, Hunting for a Little Ladle, Antiquaries of the attempted to date clay pipe bowls by.